Baker & Lakes



California Gold Rush (1848-1850) –

The gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial. San Francisco grew from a small settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852. California became a state as part of the Compromise of 1850.

Dawes Act of 1887-

Gave authorization to the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians. During the nineteenth century, Native American tribes resisted the imposition of the reservation system and engaged with the United States Army in what were called the Indian Wars. Eventually defeated by the US military force and continuing waves of encroaching settlers, the tribes negotiated agreements to resettle on reservations.

People Moving Northward and Westward for paying jobs (1877-1910) –

In these said decades families uprooted by the civil war would go north or instead went westward to work in mines on the railroad. In the north they would become a wage earning slave to the factory teaching him only one job and one job in particular. People did this due to farming being unstable in the south as after the civil war it was more likely to settle west or in the north then stay in the south.

Irish Immigration (1830-1860)-

The surge in Irish immigration after the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s, that settled primarily in the Northeast and Midwest port cities such as Boston, Philadelphia, New York, Buffalo, or Chicago. However, beginning in the early 19th century, many Irish migrated individually to the interior for work on large-scale infrastructure projects such as canals and, later in the century, railroads. They also eventually created a large political background later in the 19th century.

German Immigration (1820s- 1920s) –

The largest flow of German immigration to America occurred between 1820 and World War I, during which time nearly six million Germans immigrated to the United States. From 1840 to 1880, they were the largest group of immigrants. Most Germans immigrants turned to farming the regions of the Midwest and the fields of the mid-eastern states. Following the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, a wave of political refugees fled to America. They included professionals, journalists, and politicians.



Mormon trail (1846- 1868) –

Route that members of Latter-day Saints traveled from 1846 to 1868. About 14,000 Mormon citizens made the trek in 1846 and 1847. Going from Nauvoo, Missouri to Omaha Nebraska the Omaha to Salt Lake City took roughly a year to make the journey but the church was extremely detailed.

  1. New Immigrants (1850-1880)-

 Although there were a multitude of immigrants throughout America's history the so-called "New Immigrants" come from southern and eastern Europe specifically Italians, Jews, Croats, Slovaks, Greeks and Polish. They immigrated for a freer lifestyle coming from a country with little to no democratic history. Linking back to the theme of peopling this larger group of peoples totaled 19% of the immigrants in the 1880s, but by the first decade of the twentieth century, they consisted of 66% of the flow of immigrants.

  1. Atlantic Slave Trade (1619-1807) -

 The vast majority of those enslaved that were transported to the New World were West Africans from the central and western parts of the continent, sold by West Africans to Western European slave traders, or by direct European capture to the Americas. The numbers were so great that Africans who came by way of the slave trade became the most numerous Old-World immigrants in both North and South America before the late 18th century. The growing demand for cotton in the 1790s led many plantation owners further west in search of suitable land.

  1. The Great Migration (1630-1642)-

 A migration of seventy thousand refugees from England to North American colonies primarily New England and the Caribbean, of the twenty thousand migrants who came to Mass largely shared a common sense of purpose to establish a model Christian settlement in the new world. The Puritans created a deeply religious, socially tight-knit, and politically innovative culture that is still present within the modern United States.

  1. Sunbelt (1945)-

The fifteen-state crescent though the American South and south west that experienced terrific population and productivity expansion during World War II and particularly in the decades after the war, eclipsing the old industrial Northeast. Due to this the old industrial centers of the northeast became dilapidated and under used in the later parts of the 20thcentury.